End-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs when your kidney gradually loses its function and can no longer remove waste or excess fluid from your body. It is an advanced stage of renal failure and usually happens when the function of kidneys declined to below 15 percent of its normal function. Patients diagnosed with ESRD often suffer from general weakness, nausea, vomiting, limbs edema, arrhythmia, and dyspnea. When chronic kidney disease develops into ESRD, renal replacement therapy, which includes hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation, is necessary.
A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from another person. The kidney may come from a deceased organ donor or a living donor. Family members who make a good match may be able to donate one of their kidneys. This type of transplant is called a living transplant, which has several advantages when compared to cadaveric transplants, including less waiting time, better surgical planning, and higher success rates for the health of the donor and recipient.
Most transplanted kidneys work immediately, and creatinine levels return to normal levels within weeks. A few transplanted kidneys will take time to start working. When this happens, dialysis is needed until the kidneys can function normally.
A series of blood tests (including cross matching and tissue typing) and imaging studies will be first conducted on both the donor and recipient to ensure compatibility for renal transplantation. During the procedure, the surgeon places the donor kidney off to one side of the lower abdomen and attaches the artery and vein of the transplanted kidney to the blood vessels of the pelvis. The surgery usually takes about 3 hours. Following surgery, a urinary catheter will be inserted to drain the urine from the bladder. The urinary catheter is usually removed after 5 days.
- Risks related to surgery include:
- Allergic reaction to general anesthesia
- Blood clots
- Urological complications (ureteral obstruction and urinary leak)
- Rejection or failure of the donated kidney
- Heart attack
- Risks not related to surgery include:
- Rejection of the donated kidney
It is the most serious risk of the transplant; however, the hospital estimates that 90% of living-related and 80% of deceased kidney transplant function for at least five years after surgery.
- Immunosuppressant drugs-related side effects include:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Weight gain
- Bone thinning
- Increased hair growth
- Skin lesions
- Development of certain cancers like non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Prices are subject to change without prior notice, need to pay in accordance with the actual medical expenses.